Have you ever wondered how the biological processes have been linked to each other? Each and every system works in a very unique manner. They have well designed structures and functions. There is a link between each cell, organ and system. There is life features is something special for vertebrates. Vertebrate brains have many such special characteristics. For few centuries the consciousness was linked with purview of philosophies. But after the research and recent discoveries there is a shift in thoughts. People believed that the biological process associated with brain cells was responsible for consciousness.
Renne Descartes, a French philosopher immensely influenced the discourse on consciousness. In the midst of 17th century he professed that mind and body are made up of different stuff. They have different functioning patterns. He concluded that body has existence in both space and time but mind does not have spatial dimensions.
What is the biology behind this consciousness? What really happens in that process?
Scientists and researchers denied Descartes theory. They treated mind and body as two different entities of the same thing. Philosophers and biologists proposed that the properties and function of neurons are responsible for consciousness. It happens by both external stimuli and internal memories. Neural Darwinism gives the explanations for instructive mechanisms of brain.
Three main tenets of Neural Darwinism:
There are few case studies where in the consciousness is effected with damage of mind. Severe damage to the neurological link may alter the consciousness or even the patient may end up in coma. There is different aspect of consciousness being associated with different parts of brain. Thus the properties of neurons accounts for the level of conscious. It does not mean that all the neural activity is related to consciousness. Consciousness can also endure loss in brain parts such as cerebellum, hippocampus and the entire cerebral hemisphere. In humans the act and contents of consciousness are considerably under autonomous regulation. It is we who decide or direct our sensory actions and thought process.
The behaviour of brain and body:
There are two issues associated with brain given rise to consciousness. Firstly, the phenomenal experiences related to biological mechanism. Secondly the basis of subjective self. The relationship between brain and body solely can give the biological relation for consciousness. Brain coordinates with various sensory inputs and performs accordingly. Eventually, scientists needs to understand the biological basis of consciousness. The question among them is, why consciousness exists?