Comparision of Concept of Elasticity between Robert Hook and Sridharacharyah

Comparision of Concept of Elasticity between Robert Hook and Sridharacharyah

Elasticity

Shloka:

Ye Ghana nibidah avayavasannivesah taih

Visistesu sparsavatsu dravyesu vartamanah

Sthithisthapakah svasrayamanyatha

Kathamavanamitam yathavat sthapayati

Kathamavanamitam yathavat sthapayati

Purvavadrjuh karoti |

Meaning: Elasticity is a property in the bodies having densely populated elemental parts; when sheared by (external) deforming forces, it helps the body recover its original state.

Source: Nyayakandali, Sridharacharyah (991 AD)

Etymology: Sthiti + sthapakah = original state + bring back= elasticity

Ancient Theory

According to vaisesika sutra the samskara i.e. elasticity in one of the six gunas. The concept of elasticity is explained as a property inherited in bodies which are compactly packed and when this compact bodies are sheared by any external forces it tends to expand and then reforms with the help of these elements only. The elements that constitute the matter is solely responsible for the contraction and reformation of original state.

According to nyaya darsan the samskara guna has three types namely impulse (vega), impression (Bhavana) and elasticity (stithistapakatva). Samskara means transformation of the inherit attributes of substances.

The activities which involve forming, shaping and conditioning the moral and spiritual development of the individual was also termed as samskara.

Modern Theory

The modern physics theories state that matter is made of atoms. There are three main states of matter viz solid, liquid and gas. These matters constitutes of atoms. The compaction in the arrangement of these molecules are responsible for the physical variations in the matters.

Elasticity is a property of material to retract its original position after the expansion. When any material undergoes stress and pressure the molecules of the matter tend to push out. This pushing out reaction of the molecules results in expansion. Expansion is a state which remains for just a small time or expansion sustainability or elastic limit of that particular matter. If its limit is crossed, it may result in destruction of the material. But the expanded matter when depressurised will retrain to its original state. This expansion and relaxation is combined phrased as elasticity.

Comparision of Concept of Elasticity between Robert Hook and Sridharacharyah

Comparison of Concept of Elasticity between Robert Hook and Sridharacharyah

It was Robert Hook who explained the true theory of Elasticity or Springiness in 1676. He stated that forced applied on the matter is directly proportional to distance. He explained the elasticity using a spring. The deformation of the spring gives the elastic limit. So the length of the spring and the expansion force will determine the deformability of that substance.

It is mathematically given as  where F is Force applied, K is constant factor of characteristic of spring and ‘x’ is deformation of spring.

The elastic materials are classified into two main categories namely Hypoelastic materials and Hyperelastic materials. The linear elasticity and its formulation is widely used in design and analysis of structures such as plates and shells, beams and sandwich composites. It is the base theory for many fracture mechanics.

The hyperelasticity is used to determine the response of elastomer based objects such as gaskets.

Elasticity has a great impact on machine mechanics. When there is any external stress and strain the machine parts are supposed to sustain that efficiently. Even though it undergoes expansion, deformation to original state is the very important factor. This is achieved by the elasticity property of elemental matters.

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