Why do we have blood types? / The story of A, B, AB and O

As a kid when I felt down, my mother used to say “Cheer up kid, after all, you are a B +ve. And I used to think that all the positive people in the world had B+ve blood group and all the pessimists had B –ve. I stuck on to that idea for quite a while before realizing how silly it was. Later in my science classes, I learned the types of the proteins and sugars, inherited from our parents, which determine our blood group. These sugars found (or expressed) on the surface of red blood cells define blood types

Is it true that Jupiter protects Earth?

upiter is the largest planet in our solar system and it is fifth planet if we consider the distance from Sun. It is huge planet which has a mass of about one-thousandth that of the Sun, and 2.5 times total mass of all other planets in the Solar System. Jupiter has been known to astronomers since ancient times and The Romans named the planet after their god Jupiter. It is the 3rd brightest object in the night sky after the Venus and Moon. Jupiter is composed primarily of gaseous and liquid matter. Jupiter’s atmosphere is consists of 24% of helium

Why is a rainbow in that order?

Sunlight is consisting of multiple wavelengths of light. It includes wavelengths of light which is not visible to us, such as infrared and ultraviolet light, as well as the visible spectrum. Reflection, refraction and dispersion of sunlight inside water droplets in the atmosphere, causes the formation of rainbow which appears as a spectrum of light in the sky. Rainbow appears as a circular arc with various colors and it always seen in the section of sky which is directly opposite the sun.   A rainbow is not a physical object and it cannot be approached. It does not exist at

Do You Know What’s It Feels Like To Be A Test-Tube Baby?

In the case of a normal pregnancy a sperm cell from male fertilize an egg cell from woman. The fertilized egg then gets attached to the wall of the uterus and starts to develop into a baby. But in some cases sperm cells fail to fertilize the egg and embryo will not be formed and pregnancy will not be happening. In such situations people make use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to help women to become pregnant. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the common ART methods. In IVF procedure, egg cell is fertilized outside the body and later

Why Are Salt Levels Around The World’s Oceans Different?

Have you been to a beach? For swimming in the Sea? What is the taste of sea water? It is salty. Why is it salty? There are many chemical substances in the seawater and presence of those chemicals is the reason sea water to be salty. Most of those chemicals are carried by rivers which gets chemicals from rock and soil. The major compound in sea water is sodium chloride, which is commonly known as salt. Generally seawater has about 35 grams of salt per liter of water. Salinity of sea water is measured in parts per thousand (ppt) which tells us

Why does hot water freeze more quickly than cold water?

You might have tried to freeze water in your fridge. But have you ever noticed that hot water freezes faster that cold water? If not try it yourself. This phenomenon where hot water freezes faster than cold water is called Mpemba effect. The Mpemba effect has been well known physicists since the time of Aristotle who noticed it more than 2,000 years ago. There were many ideas had since then been put forward to explain the same. One idea is that warm containers make better thermal contact with a refrigerator and so conduct heat more efficiently and that leads to

Did You Know Reaching To Absolute Zero Temperature Is As Difficult As Attaining Speed of Light

What is the lowest temperature that you have experienced? Our body temperature is 37 degree celcius. Room temperature is lower than that which is 25 degree celcius. Fridges are generally at four degree celcius and ice forms at zero degree celcius. Can temperature go below zero degree celcius? Yes. Temperatures below zero degree celcius are generally measured in Kelvin scale where 273 K is equal to zero degree celcius. Temperature of liquid nitrogen is approaximately 70 Kelvin and liquid helium is approaximately 4 kelvin. As we decrease the temperature, there are many curious phenomena that happen which have significant effects

Secret Behind The Formation Of High Speed Winds On Neptune

Neptune is the eighth planet in the solar system if we consider distance from the Sun. Neptune is also the fourth largest and third heaviest planet in our solar system. It is seventeen times heavier than earth. Atmosphere of Neptune is very thick and most of it is composed of gas. Because of this reason Neptune is considered as a gas giant. Neptune’s atmosphere mostly consist of hydrogen and helium gas and due to the presence of small amounts of methane, the planet appear blue in color. Galileo illustrated the presence of Neptune near Jupiter in his drawings but he


CHAPTER 1 – THE VILLAGE  Once, there was a village named Rampur in South India near the foot of the hills. It was a scenic village that was picturesque marked by green paddy fields, thatched huts, livestock, boulders, temples for the devout and a Government school for the children. It was not densely populated and the families lived very close by, knowing each other by name. It would get quite hot during the summer with the sun beating down and the temperature would cool down a bit during the winter providing much needed relief to everyone. Farming was the main occupation

Regular Things that completely change in space – The Gravity of the Situation

Ever wondered? Most of the Universe is pretty empty — that’s why we call it “space” — Lol, sounds literal right? But most of us have not thought about it that way. If I were to magically transport you someplace randomly in the cosmos, the chances are you’d be a million light years from the nearest substantial object. Evolving on a planet has warped our sense of physics. If I throw an object away from me, it comes back. That’s bizarre! It should just keep going, moving away from me at a constant speed. Instead though it goes up, slows,